Wrecks over 100 years old and archaeological objects found underwater are protected under the National Monuments (Amendment) Acts 1987 and 1994.  Significant wrecks less that 100 years old can be designated by Underwater Heritage Order (UHO) on account of their historical, archaeological or artistic importance as is the case with the wreck of the RMS Lusitania lost off the Old Head of Kinsale in 1915.  UHOs can also be used to designate areas of seabed or land covered by water to more clearly define and protect wreck sites and archaeological objects .  /  /  site first uploaded 24th September 2002
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Battleships of the United States Navy
in Cork, Ireland. 1918

US Battleships Oklahoma and Nevada in Berehaven Harbour, 1918.

In the summer of 1918, the First World War was still raging in Europe. The US military presence was having the effect of turning the tide in the Allies favour. The convoy system was proving effective against the u-boats, and overwhelming amounts of men and materials were coming to Europe from the United States. There was a fear that the German forces would set some of their fast, heavily armed battle-cruisers to wreak havoc on the convoys, when they arrived in the Western Approaches.

It was decided to send Battleship Division Six, to Bantry Bay, in southwest Ireland, to counter this threat. The Commander in Chief on the Coast of Ireland Station, Admiral Sir Lewis Bayley, welcomed this force, but was aggrieved that he was expected to sacrifice some of the Queenstown US Destroyers as an escorting force for the slower battleships.

The notion of large battleships, based in in the southwest corner of Ireland was not without its critics. Some officers felt that in the event of a fast raider hitting a convoy, the raider would be long gone before any of the battleships could get up steam to pursue it.

USS Oklahoma in Berehaven Harbour, 1918.

The USS Nevada (BB-36) and USS Oklahoma (BB-37) arrived in Berehaven on Friday the 23th of August, 1918.  They were screened by the US destroyers Balch, Conyngham, Downes, Kimberly, Allen, and Sampson. The coal-burning battleship USS Utah arrived in Berehaven on Tuesday the 10th of September. She was escorted to her destination by the destroyers Stockton, Shaw, Conyngham, and Rowan.

The Oklahoma and Nevada were oil-burning ships, and included in the force was the oiler Abalama (not to be confused with Battleship Alabama BB60) which arrived on September 17th. The Utah became flagship of this force, under the command of Rear Admiral Thomas S.Rogers. They carried six months of stores and were self-sufficient, apart from fresh produce. Unlike the other US Naval forces in the British Isles, this Battleship Division was not under the operational command of the British Navy, but was under the direct command of Admiral Sims and staff.

Baseball grounds, Berehaven.(utilising the British Navy recreation grounds)

On the 21st of September SNO (Senior Naval Officer) Berehaven, Commodore Heard, reported that  influenza was rife on board the American Battle Squadron. There were so many sufferers of the Spanish Flu in the fleet, that their infirmaries were overwhelmed. Tarpaulin shelters had to be set up on deck, and the victims brought up in cots. In all, 17 crewmen died of  influenza on these ships.

Unnamed troopship in wartime camouflage

The three battleships remained in Berehaven, awaiting orders. On the 14th of October 1918, there was a report of three mysterious ships seen in the Irish Sea. It was thought that these were three German raiders. There were two important troop convoys inbound, so the order went out to protect the convoys.  The Nevada, Oklahoma, and Utah went to sea to intercept and escort the  two convoys.

The convoys were HC 20 bound from Quebec to a western British Port, and HX 51, from Hampton Roads to another British port. The battleships were, in turn, escorted by the destroyers Stevens, Downes,Terry, Sampson, Conyngham, Beale and Allen. The weather was heavy and the ships were unable to make over 15 knots. That night, the kite balloon towed by the Utah was struck by lightning and destroyed. Later the kite balloon of the Oklahoma was brought down in heavy winds and sank.

Troopship Justica sinking after torpedo hit off coast of Ireland

On the morning of the 15th Convoy HX51 was met and escorted through the danger zone of the southwest of Ireland. The battleships and destroyers then returned and found convoy HC 21 on the morning of the 16th,  and escorted this safely . The naval ships then returned to Berehaven. There they remained until after the Armistice.

Bluejackets ashore in Bere Island

The Armistice was declared, on the 11th of November 1918. The US Naval Forces in Berehaven did not remain long.  On the 20th of November 1918, the USS Nevada departed Berehaven, for Portland, England. On the 26th of November, The USS Oklahoma, and USS Utah left Ireland, for England.


USS Oklahoma -

Commanding Officer, Captain Mark L.Bristol, to October 14, 1918
Commanding Officer, Captain Charles B.McVay, Jr, from October 1918, to July 1919.

US Navy Pages on this Site

US Navy in Cork WW1    US Submarines in Cork     US Navy Casualties in Ireland WW1    US Subchasers in Cork    

US Naval Hospital in Cork    US Navy Fleet List in Cork     USNAS in Cork Ireland